is basically synonymous with a Russian winter hat today. Sometimes, it is incorrectly called a Cossack hat
. Acceptable names are trooper, trapper, and aviator hat. Ushanka
is traditionally made of several parts - forehead, crown, and ear flaps - that are sowed together. Interior is usually lined with cotton. The flaps are secured with a drawstring or velcro. Shapka
(hat in Russian) finally received its current form in 1930s with Soviet Army winter uniform overhaul. Thanks to the design, it can protect not only ears but also cheeks, neck, and chin. Material composition varies from Persian lamb or sheared sheepskin (mouton) in combination with woolen cloth to full (rabbit, mink, muskrat, faux) fur models.